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陈宝生:建设高质量教育体系
 
教育新闻      2020-11-11 08:53:00             点击

 教育是事关国家发展和民族未来的千秋基业。党的十九届五中全会通过的《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二○三五年远景目标的建议》(以下简称《建议》),明确了“建设高质量教育体系”的政策导向和重点要求,我们要全面准确领会全会精神,认真贯彻落实到位。

  1 准确把握“十四五”时期教育改革发展的宏观形势

  《jianyi》zhichu:“‘shisiwu’shiqishiwoguoquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehui、shixiandiyigebainianfendoumubiaozhihou,chengshiershangkaiqiquanmianjiansheshehuizhuyixiandaihuaguojiaxinzhengcheng、xiangdiergebainianfendoumubiaojinjundediyigewunian。”zhunquebawo“shisiwu”shiqijiaoyugaigefazhanhongguanxingshi,shenkerenshiwoguojinrugaozhiliangfazhanjieduandexintezhengxinyaoqiu,duimouhuajianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixizhiguanzhongyao。

  “shisanwu”shiqijiaoyugaigefazhanqudexindexianzhuchengjiu。yixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangbajiaoyuzuoweiguozhidaji、dangzhidaji,jiaqiangdangduijiaoyugongzuodequanmianlingdao,zhaokaiquanguojiaoyudahui,duijiaoyuxiandaihuahejiaoyuqiangguozuochuzhongdazhanlvebushu,tongchoujiaoyulingyuzonghegaigehejiaoyuzhilixiandaihua,jiaoyumianmaozhengzaifashenggejuxingbianhua。2019nianquanguoxueqiansannianmaoruyuanlv83.4%、xiaoxuexuelingrenkouruxuelv99.94%,chuzhong、gaozhong、gaodengjiaoyujieduandemaoruxuelvfenbiewei102.6%、89.5%he51.6%,gaodengjiaoyujinrupujihuajieduan,teshujiaoyubuduanjiaqiang,jixujiaoyuduoyanghuatuijin。xinzenglaodonglipingjunshoujiaoyunianxianchaoguo13.7nian,“shisanwu”guihuamubiaojiangshunliwancheng,jiaoyupujishuipingwenjushijiezhongshangshouruguojiaxinglie。zaiquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehuijueshengjieduan,jiaoyushiyeweishehuizhuyixiandaihuajianshekaifalerenliziyuan,weizengqiangzongheguoliheguojijingzhengligongxianlejijililiang,weiguominsuzhizhujiantigaotigonglezhongyaozhichi,weiruqishixiantuopingongjianzuochuleyoulizhicheng,renminqunzhongduijiaoyudehuodeganhemanyiduchixutisheng。

  “shisiwu”shiqijiaoyugaigefazhanmianlinzhexuduoxindejiyuhetiaozhan。《jianyi》zhichu,“dangqianhejinhouyigeshiqi,woguofazhanrengchuyuzhongyaozhanlvejiyuqi,danjiyuhetiaozhandouyouxindefazhanbianhua”,bingjiu“dangjinshijiezhengjinglibainianweiyouzhidabianju”“woguoyizhuanxianggaozhiliangfazhanjieduan”dengshiqingguoqingzuochuzhongyaopanduan。zaifuzaduobiandefazhanhuanjingzhong,woguojiaoyuzhiduyoushimingxian,rencaiziyuanjichujiaohao,suizhejingjishehuifazhanherenminshenghuoshuipingtigao,jiaoyuxuqiuchengxianduocengciduoyanghuataishi,xinyidaixinxijishuyijiduofangshehuiziyuankewangzhichiyixuexizheweizhongxindejiaoyuxinshengtai,zheidoushijianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixideyoulitiaojian。tongshi,woguoquyujiaoyuziyuanpeizhibugoujunheng,chengxiangjiaoyuchajujidaisuoxiao,rencaipeiyangmoshigaigexuyaotisu,jiaoyuchuangxinyufuwuqianlishangweigenghaoshifang,tongrenminqunzhongduigaozhiliangjiaoyutixidexuqiuxiangbihaiyouhendachaju。womenyaoshenruguanchedangzhongyangguanyu“shisiwu”shiqijiaoyugaigefazhandejuecebushu,zhuazhujiyu,yingduitiaozhan,quanliyifu,gongjiankenan。

  2 深刻认识“十四五”时期建设高质量教育体系的重要意义

  dangdeshibadayilai,xijinpingzongshujiduitigaojiaoyuzhiliangduocizuochuzhongyaolunshu、tichumingqueyaoqiu,dangheguojiazhidingshishileyixiliexiangguanzhengcecuoshi,wei“shisiwu”shiqizaixindeqidianshangjianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixidaxialejichu。

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixishijianchiyirenminweizhongxindebiranyaoqiu。jianchiyirenminweizhongxin,shiwomendangdegenbenzongzhisuojuedingde,shi《jianyi》zhongguanyu“shisiwu”shiqijingjishehuifazhanbixuzunxundeyuanzezhiyi,zhangxianlezhongguoteseshehuizhuyizhiduxianzhuyoushi。xijinpingzongshujijiangjianchiyirenminweizhongxinfazhanjiaoyuzuoweiduiwoguojiaoyushiyeguilvxingrenshideshenhua,qiangdiaoyaoshizhongjianchibingbuduanfengfufazhan。《jianyi》yaoqiujianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixi,jiushijianchiyirenminweizhongxinfazhanjiaoyushiye,shijiaoyushiyeweitigaorenminsixiangdaodesuzhi、kexuewenhuasuzhiheshenxinjiankangsuzhitigongkekaobaozheng,qieshizuodaofazhanweilerenmin,fazhanyikaorenmin,fazhanchengguoyourenmingongxiang,buduanmanzurenminriyizengzhangdemeihaoshenghuoxuyao。

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixishigoujianxinfazhangejudejichuhuanjie。suizhewaibuhuanjinghewoguofazhansuojuyoudeyaosubingfudebianhua,《jianyi》yaoqiu,“shisiwu”shiqijiangjiakuaigoujianyiguoneidaxunhuanweizhuti、guoneiguojishuangxunhuanxianghucujindexinfazhangeju,zheiduijianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixitichuleduofangweixuqiu。jinhou,zaichangtongguoneidaxunhuan、dazaokaifangdeguoneiguojishuangxunhuandegegehuanjie,zaicuxiaofeihuiminsheng、diaojiegouzenghoujingdeduogelingyu,douxuyaojiaoyutixiyuanyuanbuduanshusonggaozhiliangderenliziyuan,jianchibuxietigonggaozhiliangdeyanjiukaifazhichi;douxuyaojiaoyutixigenghaocanyuchengxiangfazhanfuwuxiaofei、gaishanrenminshenghuopinzhi,zaiyigaozhilianggongjishiyingyinlinghechuangzaoxinxuqiufangmian,jinxingxindetansuoshijian,jinyibufahuigaozhiliangjiaoyutixizaiguojiminshengzhongdejichuxing、xiandaoxing、quanjuxingzuoyong。

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixishimaoding2035nianyuanjingmubiaodeguanjianjucuo。genjuxijinpingzongshujiguanyujiaoyudexiliezhongyaolunshuhedangdeshijiudadejiaoyuzhanlvebushu,dangzhongyang、guowuyuanyinfa《zhongguojiaoyuxiandaihua2035》,tichu“dao2035nian,zongtishixianjiaoyuxiandaihua,mairujiaoyuqiangguoxinglie,tuidongwoguochengweixuexidaguo、renliziyuanqiangguoherencaiqiangguo,weidao21shijizhongyejianchengfuqiangminzhuwenminghexiemeilideshehuizhuyixiandaihuaqiangguodiandingjianshijichu”,weijiaoyuguihuadingxiajidiao。《jianyi》zaiquedingdao2035nianjibenshixianshehuizhuyixiandaihuayuanjingmubiaoshi,yaoqiujieshijianchengjiaoyuqiangguo。womenyaomaoding2035nianzongtishixianjiaoyuxiandaihua、jianchengjiaoyuqiangguodemubiao,tongguo3gewunianguihua,ba15niandejieduanzhanlveanpaixihuaweiyachatuijindezhengcexingdong,jixiaochengweidacheng。“shisiwu”qijianzhongdianfangzaijianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixishang,zheiduishixian“quanminshoujiaoyuchengdubuduantisheng”demubiao,jiangshidaiyouquanjuxingdeguanjianjucuo。

  3 扎实贯彻党中央关于建设高质量教育体系的重要决策

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixi,chongfentixianleyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangdui“shisiwu”naizhiyigegengzhangshiqiwanshanzhongguoteseshehuizhuyijiaoyutixidezuixinyaoqiu,zongtishangkan,《jianyi》quedingleyixia4gefangmianzhongdian。

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixibixujianchidangduijiaoyugongzuodequanmianlingdao。“dangzhengjunminxue,dongxinanbeizhong,dangshilingdaoyiqiede。”dangdeshibadayilai,yixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyanggaoduzhongshidangduijiaoyugongzuodequanmianlingdao,zaidangdequanguodaibiaodahuibaogaohezhongyangquanhuiwenjianzhong,duijiaoyugaigefazhanhejiaoyuxitongdangdejianshebuduantichuzhongyaoyaoqiu,congchenglizhongyangquanmianshenhuagaigelingdaoxiaozu(weiyuanhui)daozujianzhongyangjiaoyugongzuolingdaoxiaozu,quebaodangzaijiaoyugongzuofangmianshizhongzonglanquanju、xiediaogefang。《jianyi》yaoqiujianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixi,shouyaobiaozhunshijiaoyuxitongbixuzengqiang“sigeyishi”、jianding“sigezixin”、zuodao“lianggeweihu”,yaozaijianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixiguochengzhong,shenruguanchexijinpingzongshujiguanyujianshouweidangyuren、weiguoyucaidezongtiyaoqiu,quanmianguanchedangdejiaoyufangzhen,jianchimakesizhuyizhidaodiwei,jianchizhongguoteseshehuizhuyijiaoyufazhandaolu,jianchishehuizhuyibanxuefangxiang,zaishijianzhongzengqiangjiaoyuxitonggejidangzuzhizhengzhigongnenghezuzhili,quebaodangzhongyangjuecebushuyouxiaoluodiluoshi。

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixiyaojianquanxuexiaojiatingshehuixietongyurenjizhi。《jianyi》zaiqiangdiao“quanmianguanchedangdejiaoyufangzhen,jianchilideshuren,jiaqiangshideshifengjianshe,peiyangdezhitimeilaoquanmianfazhandeshehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanren”dejichushang,mingqueyaoqiu“jianquanxuexiaojiatingshehuixietongyurenjizhi,tishengjiaoshijiaoshuyurennenglisuzhi,zengqiangxueshengwenmingsuyang、shehuizerenyishi、shijianbenling,zhongshiqingshaonianshentisuzhihexinlijiankangjiaoyu”,zheishishenruguanchexijinpingzongshujiguanyu“banhaojiaoyushiye,jiating、xuexiao、zhengfu、shehuidouyouzeren”“quanshehuiyaodanfuqiqingshaonianchengzhangchengcaidezeren”dengxiliezhongyaolunshujingshendejizhongtixian。《jianyi》bushu“shisiwu”shiqijianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixi,duixinfazhanjieduanlideshurendejibenyaoqiuyouzuochuxindechanshihebuju。henglianggaozhiliangjiaoyutixi,hendachengdushangyaokanshuyiqianwanjijiaoshi、shuyiyijixueshengdesuzhinengfoubuduantishenghezengqiang。jinhou,duofangweitigaoshishengsuzhi,zhongdianjiangluozaijianquanxuexiaojiatingshehuixietongyurenjizhicengmian,congdezhitimeilao“wuyubingju”,daoquanyuanquanchengquanfangwei“sanquanyuren”,yindiyinxiaozhiyi,fazhansuzhijiaoyu,xingchengyouxiaodeshijianmoshi,nulihuijuqijiaoyuxitongheshehuigefangdegengdaheli。

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixiyaozaishenhuagaigecujingongpingshangmaikaixinbu。《jianyi》yi“jianchijiaoyugongyixingyuanze,shenhuajiaoyugaige,cujinjiaoyugongping”weidaoxiang,buzhiyitaozhengce“zuhequan”。yishihangshigaozhiliangjiaoyutixigenji,zhongdianshi“tuidongyiwujiaoyujunhengfazhanhechengxiangyitihua,wanshanpuhuixingxueqianjiaoyuheteshujiaoyu、zhuanmenjiaoyubaozhangjizhi,guligaozhongjieduanxuexiaoduoyanghuafazhan”“tigaominzudiqujiaoyuzhiliangheshuiping,jiadaguojiatongyongyuyanwenzituiguanglidu”,jiakuaijianquan“youyousuoyu、xueyousuojiao”dengfangmianguojiajibengonggongfuwuzhidutixi,nulirangqingshaonianertongdounengxiangyougongpingeryouzhiliangdejiaoyu,weiqimoushengfazhandahaojichu。ershimianxianggoujianxinfazhangeju,qiangdiao“jiadarenlizibentouru,zengqiangzhiyejishujiaoyushiyingxing,shenhuazhipurongtong、chanjiaoronghe、xiaoqihezuo,tansuozhongguotesexuetuzhi,dalipeiyangjishujinengrencai”,weixuexizheduozhongfangshijiuyechuangyezhuli,youxiaotishenglaodongzhejinengheshourushuiping,shiyingtishengwoguochanyeliangongyinglianxiandaihuashuipingdepoqiexuyao。sanshizheyankechixufazhanquanju,mingque“tigaogaodengjiaoyuzhiliang,fenleijiansheyiliudaxueheyiliuxueke,jiakuaipeiyangligongnongyileizhuanyejinquerencai”dezhugongfangxiang,yaoqiu“jiaqiangchuangxinxing、yingyongxing、jinengxingrencaipeiyang”;“zhichifazhangaoshuipingyanjiuxingdaxue,jiaqiangjichuyanjiurencaipeiyang”,zhongshen“tuijinchanxueyanshenduronghe”,weizengqiangzongheguoli、zengjinminshengfuzhizhuruxindedonglihuoli。sishilizujibenguoqing,zhongshen“zhichiheguifanminbanjiaoyufazhan,guifanxiaowaipeixunjigou”,zaizengjiagonggongjiaoyufuwugongjidetongshi,genghaofahuigefangjijixing,chuangxinjiaoyufuwuyetai,tuijinjiaoyuzhilifangshibiange。

  jianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixiyaoduibiaofuwuquanmindezhongshenxuexitixi。anzhaoyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangdezhongdabushu,《jianyi》qiangdiao“fahuizaixianjiaoyuyoushi,wanshanzhongshenxuexitixi,jianshexuexixingshehui”,chongfentixianlejianshexuexixingshehuidedingcengshejiyitu,goujianfangshigengjialinghuo、ziyuangengjiafengfu、xuexigengjiabianjiedezhongshenxuexitixi,erfahuizaixianjiaoyuyoushi,woguojileilechenggongdeshijianjingyan。jinnianlaiwangluobenzhuankezhucehebiyerenshujunjushijiediyi,zaixianjiaoyuhepeixunyijingxingchengduoyanghuageju。2020nianxinguanfeiyanyiqingtufahoukaizhandaguimozaixianjiaoyu,2yuedao5yue,guojiazhongxiaoxuewangluoyunpingtai20duoyirenciliulan,quanguo1775wandaxueshengcanyuzaixiankecheng,gongji23yirenci。zheishiquanqiuzuidaguimodezaixianjiaoyushiyan,bujinyouxiaoyingduileyiqingchongji、baozhangleshishengjiankangheshengminganquan,erqietansuochuangxinlejiaoxuemoshi。“shisiwu”shiqijianshegaozhiliangjiaoyutixi,bijiangyanzhe“shixianrenrenjiexue、chuchunengxue、shishikexue”fangxiang,woguozhongshenxuexitixihexuexixingshehuidejianshekewangkaipixindejingjie。(zuozhe:chenbaosheng,xijiaoyubudangzushuji、buzhang)

发布时间:2020-11-10 浏览量: 113 信息来源: 《光明日报(2020年11月10日 13版)